Class 10 Chapter 2 Science notes on Salts
Salts are of many types, normal salt, acid salt, basic salt, and double salt. Examples of Normal salts are carbonate chloride,, sulfate, ammonium, , nitrate, ethanoate, sodium, and potassium salts, etc. The salts in which one replaceable hydrogen atom exist known as acid salts like NaHCO3.The salts containing hydroxyl group(OH) known as basic salts like lead oxychloride(Pb(OH)Cl and t double salts contain two positive/negative ions, as an example mineral dolomite CaCO3.MgCO3. Here we are going to discuss the ways of driving different salts from one of the normal salts(common salts) NaCl which is used by us daily known as Sodium Chloride(eating salt).
Sodium Chloride is separated from these salts. Sodium Chloride is also found in the form of solid-state, there are beds of rock salts worldwide that are formed due to the sea dried up in bygone ages, its colour is brown due to the impurities of other salts. Common salt(NaCl) is a raw material for various chemicals that are used in our daily life such as sodium hydroxide, baking soda.
Sodium Hydroxide: When electricity is passed through an aqueous solution of sodium chloride(brine),it decomposes into sodium hydroxide and chlorine, this reaction is known as chlor alkali process because of the formation of the products like chlorine and NaOH (alkali).
2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)
The chlorine gas released in the chlor alkali process is utilized in manufacturing bleaching powder. Bleaching powder is produced by the action of chlorine on dry slaked lime [Ca(OH)2].
Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 → CaOCl2 + H2O
The reaction of Cl2 on Ca(OH)2 releases bleaching powder (CaOCl2)
Use of bleaching powder: Bleaching powder is used to bleach the fabrics of cotton and linen in the textile industry,it is used to bleach wood pulp in paper factories and also used to bleach washed cloth in laundry.
Bleaching powder also used as an oxidizing agent in many chemical industries and for disinfecting drinking water to make it free of germs.
Baking soda (NaHCO3) is produced using sodium chloride (brine), carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia, this process is known as the Solvay process by the name of a Belgian industrial chemist who first discovered this process. Solvay process of producing NaHCO3 (also known as sodium ash) is widely used because it is inexpensive since carbon dioxide is recycled to produce more baking soda.
NaCl + H2O + CO2 + NH3 → NH4Cl + NaHCO3
In this process ammonium chloride(NH4Cl) and baking soda are formed, On heating the baking soda the following reaction takes place.
Uses of sodium hydrogen carbonate: (i) Baking powder is manufactured by mixing up baking soda and mild edible acid such as tartaric acid.When baking powder is heated or mixed in water,the following reaction takes place.
Carbon dioxide produced during the reaction causes bread or cake to rise to make them soft and spongy.
(ii) NaHCO3 is also used as an ingredient in antacids, it neutralizes excess acid in the stomach and provides relief.
(iii) NaHCO3 is also used in soda-acid fire extinguishers, when the mixture of sodium hydrogen carbonate and sulphuric acid enters the place of fire,it heated up and releases a lot of carbon dioxide and some water that keeps oxygen out and fire extinguishes.
Washing Soda: Washing soda(Na2CO3.10H2O) is obtained from sodium chloride.Na2CO3 is obtained by heating sodium hydrogen carbonate thereby recrystallization of sodium carbonate gives washing soda.
Uses of washing soda: (i) Sodium carbonate(washing soda) is used in glass, soap, and paper industries.
(ii) It is used in manufacturing borax.
(iii) Sodium carbonate is used as a cleaning agent for domestic purposes.
(iv) It is used for removing the permanent hardness of the water.
Plaster of Paris
It is obtained by heating gypsum up to 373 K, it losses water molecules and becomes calcium sulfate hemihydrated (CaSO4.2H20), this is called Plaster of Paris.
Plaster of paris is used in manufacturing toys and many decorative items, the doctor uses it as a plaster for supporting fractured bones.Plaster of paris is a white powder when mixes up with water,it changes into gypsum once again giving hard solid mass.
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