**Class X Science Important notes of chapter 12 -Magnetic effect of electric current-I**

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**Class X Science Important notes of chapter 12 -Magnetic effect of electric current-I**

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**Q1. Show the magnetic field lines across a bar magnet.**

Magnetic field lines through a bar magnet- Magnetic field around a magnet means the area where magnetism is present, it is shown by the magnetic field lines or we can say that magnetism is present only along these lines and is absent between them. These magnetic field lines are originated from the north pole and merge into the south pole of the magnet.

**Q2.What are the properties of magnetic field lines?**

Properties of Magnetic field lines-(i)Magnetic field lines originates from the north pole and merge into the south pole.

(ii) The direction of magnetic field lines outside of the magnet is from north to south pole and south to north inside the magnet.

(iii) Two magnetic field lines never intersect each other.

(iv) Magnetic field lines are continuous and form closed loops means they don’t have the end and beginning points.

**Q3. Why don’t two magnetic field lines intersect each other?**

Ans. Magnetic field lines show the direction of the magnetic field, the tangents on magnetic field lines show the direction of the magnetic field, every point on the lines show the direction of the magnetic field because tangents can be drawn with respect to every point. If magnetic field lines would intersect each other then two tangents on the same point will show two different directions of the magnetic field, one from north to south and other from south to north which is not possible so they never intersect each other.

**Q4. Explain the right-hand thumb rule.**

Ans. Imagine that you are holding a straight current-carrying conductor in such a way that your thumb shows the direction of current then your fingers wrap around it will show the direction of the magnetic field.

**Q5.How can you show the direction of the magnetic field if the current is moving in the direction of the east in a wire?**

Ans. According to the right-hand rule of the magnetic field, if a current is moving in the eastward direction the direction of the magnetic field around it will be in the clockwise direction as seen in the following figure.

**Q6.What will be the direction of the magnetic field if the direction of the current is in the west direction?**

Ans. According to the right-hand rule of the magnetic field, if a current is moving in the west direction the magnetic field around it will be in the anticlockwise direction as seen in the following figure.

**Q7.Show the magnetic field across a current-carrying conductor.**

Ans. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field around it,it is known as electromagnetism or simply magnetic effect of electric current. The magnetic field lines of force around it is shown by the concentric circles .the circles are closer near the conductor shows the higher intensity of the magnetic field, the circles farther from the conductor shows less intensity of the magnetic field. The intensity of the magnetic field around the conductor is directly proportional to the electric current passing through it. The direction of the magnetic field around it either has checked clockwise or anticlockwise depending on the direction of the current along the conductor.

It is clear from the right-hand thumb rule

The direction of current Direction of the magnetic field

South Clockwise

North Anticlockwise

West Anticlockwise

East Clockwise

**Q8. Show the magnetic field across a current-carrying circular loop.**

Ans. The magnetic field line of force at every point of current carrying circular loop are concentric circles around each segment of it, the size of circles becomes larger towards the centre of the circular loop and at the centre the magnetic field lines become straight.

The direction of the magnetic field line is perpendicular to the plane of the circular loop. The ends of the line passing through the centre make the north and south poles.

The strength of the magnetic field of a current-carrying circular conductor depends on the following factors.

The magnetic field of the circular loop is proportional to the amount of current flowing through it

The magnetic field of the circular loop is inversely proportional to its radius

The magnetic field of the circular loop is proportional to the number of turns in it

**Q9.Consider a circular loop of wire lying on the plane of the table. Let the current pass through the loop clockwise. Apply the right-hand rule to find out the direction of the magnetic field inside and outside the loop.**

Ans. Here circular loop is lying on the table, considering the current is passing through the loop clockwise, the current is in the upward direction in the left part of the loop and downward direction in the right part of the loop, imagine to arrange the right hand such that thumb is showing the direction of current then the tips of finger wrapped around it shows the direction of the magnetic field, the direction of the magnetic field is shown by concentric circles around it, these concentric circles extend from the upper part of the table to lower part of the table, it is clear that the direction of magnetic field lines generated by the circular loop is in the upward direction outside of the circular loop and downward direction inside the loop, in other words, the direction of the magnetic field generated by such a loop perpendicular to the plane of table. The north pole of this loop will be the face touching the table as field lines emerge from there and the front face is the south pole because field lines merge here.

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