Direct and Indirect Narration rules Tenses wise and Sentences wise - Future Study Point

Direct and Indirect Narration rules Tenses wise and Sentences wise

direct and indirect narration

Direct and Indirect Narration rules Tenses wise and Sentences wise

Direct and Indirect Narration rules Tenses and Sentences wise are described here systematically for helping the students in their exams. The type of sentence that represents a conversation between two individuals is known as direct speech and spoken words are written inside inverted commas, the type of sentence that represents the same information of the dialogue conveyed by you to others is known as indirect speech and written without inverted commas.

direct and indirect narration

 

Direct and Indirect Narration rules Tenses wise and Sentences wise

The direct speech has two parts.

(1) Reporting speech (ii) Reported speech

As an example

Direct: Ram said to Shyam, “I am going to home”

Indirect: Ram told Shyam that he was going to home.

The part of the sentence ‘Ram said to Shyam’ is called reporting speech and ‘Said’ is reporting verb. The part of the sentence inside inverted commas “I am going home” is known as reported speech.

See the video-Rules of Converting Direct Speach to Indirect speach

Direct and Indirect Narration rules Tenses wise and Sentences wise

Rule (1): If the tense of the reporting verb is in present or future then tense of reported speech remains in the same tense.

As an example

Direct: Sohan says to his mother, “I am going to school”

Indirect: Sohan tells his mother that he is going to school.

Direct: Sohan will say to the teacher, “I didn’t solve the questions”

Indirect: Sohan will tell the teacher that he didn’t solve the questions.

Rule(2): If the reporting verb is in the past tense then the tense of the reported speech is changed as mentioned below.

(Direct)Reported Speech (Indirect)Reported speech
Present IndefinitePast Indefinite
Present Continuous TensePast Continuous Tense
Present Perfect TensePast Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous TensePast Perfect Continuous Tense
Past IndefinitePast Perfect Tense
Past Continuous TensePast Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect TensePast Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Continuous TensePast Perfect Continuous Tense
Future Tense(Will/Shall)Future in Past Would/Should

Direct and Indirect Narration rules Tenses wise and Sentences wise

Rule(3): The following changes should be made in the case when sentences are assertive.

Said to→ Told

Conjunction → That

Rule(4): The following changes should be made in the case when reported speech is an Interrogative sentence with an auxiliary verb.

Conjunction → If/whether

Said to→ Asked

Rule(5): The following changes should be made in the case when reported speech is an Interrogative sentence with an interrogative word.

Conjunction → Interrogative word itself

Said to→ Asked

Rule(6): The pronoun of the reported speech is changed according to the person of the subjects(first, second and third).

Rule(7): The pronoun of the reported speech must be changed as per the object of reporting verb mentioned below.

Direct and Indirect Narration rules Tenses wise and Sentences wise

 

DIRECTINDIRECT
ThisThat
HereThere
NowThen
TheirThose
TodayThat day
TomorrowNext day
YesterdayPrevious day
AgoBefore
JustThen
ComeGo
CanCould
MayMight
Will/ShallWould/Should

The example when reported speech is in present indefinite:

Affirmative

Direct: Radha said to her father,“I always get up at 4 O Clock ”

Indirect: Radha told her father that she always got up at 4 O Clock.

Negative

Direct: Radha said to her father,“I always  don’t get up at 4 O Clock ”

Indirect: Radha told her father that she always didn’t get up at 4 O Clock.

Interrogative

Direct: Radha said to her father, “Do you always get up at 4 O Clock? ”

Indirect: Radha asked her father if he always got up at 4 O Clock.

The example when reported speech is in present continuous:

Affirmative

Direct: Rohit said to his friend,“We are going to see the movie today”

Indirect: Rohit told his friend that they were going to see the movie that day.

Negative

Direct: Rohit said to his friend,“We are not going to see the movie today”

Indirect: Rohit told his friend that they were not going to see the movie that day.

Interrogative

Direct: Rohit said to his friend,“Are you  going to see the movie today?”

Indirect: Rohit asked his friend if they were going to see the movie that day.

Interrogative (using the interrogative word)

Direct: Rohit said to his friend,“Where are you  going to see the movie today?”

Indirect: Rohit asked his friend where was he going to see the movie that day.

The example when reported speech is in present perfect:

Affirmative

Direct: Saraswati said to Mohan, “You have cleared your maths syllabus.”

Indirect: Saraswati told Mohan that he had cleared his maths syllabus.

Negative

Direct: Saraswati said to Mohan, “You have not cleared your maths syllabus.”

Indirect: Saraswati told Mohan that he had not cleared his maths syllabus.

Interrogative

Direct: Saraswati said to Mohan, “ Have you cleared your maths syllabus?”

Indirect: Saraswati asked Mohan if he had cleared his maths syllabus.

Direct: Saraswati said to Mohan, “What have you cleared in your maths syllabus?”

Indirect: Saraswati told Mohan what he had cleared in his maths syllabus.

The example when reported speech is in present perfect continuous:

Affirmative

Direct: Mohini said to her brother, “Father has been suffering from fever since last night.

Indirect: Mohini told her brother that father had been suffering from fever since last night.

Negative

Direct: Mohini said to her brother, “Father has not been suffering from fever since last night.

Indirect: Mohini told her brother that father had not been suffering from fever since last night.

Interrogative

Direct: Mohini said to her brother, “ Has father been suffering from fever since last night?”

Indirect: Mohini asked her brother if father had been suffering from fever since last night.

Direct: Mohini said to her brother, “ What has been bothering dad since last night?”

Indirect: Mohini asked her brother what had been bothering dad since last night.

The example when reported speech is in past indefinite:

Affirmative

Direct: Radha said to her father,“Yesterday I got up at 4 O Clock ”

Indirect: Radha told her father that yesterday she had got up at 4 O Clock.

Negative

Direct: Radha said to her father,“Yesterday I didn’t get up at 4 O Clock ”

Indirect: Radha told her father that yesterday she had not gotten up at 4 O Clock.

Interrogative

Direct: Radha said to her father,“Did you get up at 4 O Clock ”

Indirect: Radha asked her father if he had gotten up at 4 O Clock.

Direct: Radha said to her father,“When did you get up today? ”

Indirect: Radha asked her father when he had gotten up that day.

The example when reported speech is in past continuous:

Affirmative

Direct: Rohit said to his friend, “We were going to see the movie yesterday”

Indirect: Rohit told his friend that they had been going to see the movie the previous day.

Negative

Direct: Rohit said to his friend, “We were not going to see the movie yesterday”

Indirect: Rohit told his friend that they had not been going to see the movie the previous day.

Interrogative

Direct: Rohit said to his friend, “ Were  we not going to see the movie yesterday?”

Indirect: Rohit asked his friend if they had not been going to see the movie the previous day.

Direct: Rohit said to his friend, “Where were you going to see the movie yesterday?”

Indirect: Rohit asked his friend where had you been going to see the movie last day.

The example when reported speech is in past perfect:

Affirmative

Direct: Saraswati said to Mohan, “You had cleared your maths syllabus.”

Indirect: Saraswati told Mohan that he had cleared his maths syllabus.

Negative

Direct: Saraswati said to Mohan, “You had not cleared your maths syllabus.”

Indirect: Saraswati told Mohan that he had not cleared his maths syllabus.

Interrogative

Direct: Saraswati said to Mohan, “Had you cleared your maths syllabus.”

Indirect: Saraswati asked Mohan if he had cleared his maths syllabus.

Direct: Saraswati said to Mohan, “Why had you not completed  your maths syllabus.”

Indirect: Saraswati asked Mohan why he had not been cleared his maths syllabus.

The example when reported speech is in past perfect continuous:

Affirmative

Direct: Mohini said to her brother, “Father had been suffering from fever since last night.”

Indirect: Mohini told her brother that father had been suffering from fever since last night.

Negative

Direct: Mohini said to her brother, “Father had not been suffering from fever since last night.”

Indirect: Mohini told her brother that father had not been suffering from fever since last night.

Interrogative

Direct: Mohini said to her brother, “Had father  been suffering from fever since last night?”

Indirect: Mohini asked her brother if father had been suffering from fever since last night.

Direct: Mohini said to her brother, “What had  been bothering father  since yesterday night?”

Indirect: Mohini asked her brother what had been bothering father since last night.

The examples when reported speech is in the future tense:

Affirmative

Direct: The teacher said to students, “You will check your maths notebook tomorrow.”

Indirect: The teacher told students that they would check their maths notebooks the next day.

Negative

Direct: The teacher said to students, “You will not check your maths notebook tomorrow.”

Indirect: The teacher told students that they would not check their maths notebooks the next day.

Interrogative

Direct: The teacher said to students, “ Will you check your maths notebook tomorrow?”

Indirect: The teacher asked students if they would check their maths notebooks the next day.

The examples when reported speech is an Imperative sentence:

The type of sentences which expresses command, request, and advice(or suggestion)

If reported speech is an imperative sentence then “To” is used as a conjunction

When reported speech shows command

Said to → Instructed

Meena said to her younger brother,“Keep quiet.”

Meena instructed her younger brother to keep quiet.

When reported speech shows a request

Said to → requested

Meena said to her  brother, “Please close the window.”

Meena requested her brother to keep quiet.

When reported speech shows a advise

Said to →advised/suggested

The teacher said to the students, “Follow  the traffic rules.”

The teacher advised the students to follow the traffic rules.

When reported speech is an Exclamatory Sentence

The type of sentences that express emotions of joy, surprise, pain, and sorrow is called exclamatory sentences.

If reported speech expresses pleasure  then “Said” or “Said to”  is replaced by “exclaimed with joy”

Example: He said, “Hurray! I have got excellent marks.”

Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that he had got excellent marks.

If reported speech expresses sorrow then “Said” or “Said to”  is replaced by “exclaimed with sorrow”

Example: He said, “Oh! It is bad news.”

Indirect: He exclaimed with sorrow that it was bad news.

If reported speech expresses wonder then “Said” or “Said to”  is replaced by “exclaimed with wonder or surprised”

Example: He said, “ What a beautiful dress is this!”

Indirect: He exclaimed with surprise that that was a beautiful dress.

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