**Molar mass, molecular mass and mole concept**

The matter all around us are composed of atoms, the mass of the matter is one of the properties of the matter, it is the property which is determined by the some of the fundamental particles of the atom, the fundamental particles protons and neutrons are the contributor of the **atomic mass**, **molecular mass or molar mass**, although according to current theory protons and neutrons are also composed of quarks which is the smallest fundamental particle of the **atom**, so quarks are the basic contributors to add mass to **atomic mass**, **molecular mass** or **molar mass.**

ย Electrons are transformed from the leptons which is also known as basic fundamental particle but leptons are unstable particles,so quarks, electrons, and leptons are one of the basic fundamental particles, recently one more particle Hibbs boson is also discovered to have existed, according to latest theory this particle is the cause of the existence of the mass in the universe but here we are going to discuss atomic mass, molecular mass or molar mass on the basis of academic purposes for solving the questions based on mass, molecular mass or molar mass based on classical atomic theory.

Hibbs boson is an unstable particle and breaks down into the quarks. Hibbs boson is the generator of quarks which add mass to **atomic mass**, **molecular mass** **or molar mass** so scientist has called it God particle. All of these similar particles you can study in higher classes in **particle physics theory**. Here we shall study the theory based on the subject curriculum of **middle-class students** only.

Before we study what is **mole concept, molecular mass, molar mass**, first we are required to study the **atomic mass** of an element.

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**Molar mass, molecular mass and mole concept**

**Atomic mass-**

The number of protons in the nucleus is known as the atomic number which indicates the identity of an element because it is the total positive charge of the atom which is equal to the total number of negatively charged electrons. Electrons revolve around the nucleus almost with the speed of light so electrons do not contribute to adding mass to the atom. The protons and neutrons are called nucleons of the atoms, the mass of each single nucleons is known as 1 atomic mass unit, if total number of nucleons is 16 then the atomic mass is equal to the product of 16 and 1amu means 16 amu.

In short we can write amu to u.

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### Molecular mass-

The molecule is composed of similar or different atoms, so molecular mass is the sum of all the atoms in a molecule, as an exampleย ย Ca(OH)_{2}

The molecular mass ofย Ca(OH)_{2ย }is

= number of Ca atoms ร atomic mass of Ca + number of oxygen atoms ร atomic mass of oxygen + number of hydrogen atomร atomic mass of hydrogen

Atomic mass of Ca =40 u,Atomic mass of O= 16 u,Atomic mass of H=1 u

The molecular mass ofย ย Ca(OH)_{2 }= 1ร40 + 2ร 16 +2ร1=40 + 32 + 2 =74 amu

Hence the molecular mass of the Ca(OH)_{2 }ย is 74 amu.

**Molar mass, molecular mass and mole concept**

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### Mole concept-

As 1 dozen of everything contain 12 things or 1 kg of identical things contain same number of thing on the same way the number of particles(atoms, molecules, ions, protons, neutrons, electrons, etc) in gram equivalent of atomic mass or molecular mass of the particular elements or compounds is fixed in STP(Standard Temperature and Pressure)ย is fixed.

The Avagadro have evaluated the number of particles in 1 mole of a substance asย 6.022ร10^{23ย }which is known as Avogadro number or Avagadro constant, it is also known as particles in 1 mole of the substance.

### Molar mass-

Gram equivalent of atomic mass or molecular mass of the particular elements or compounds is known as molar mass, its SI unit is gram. The molar mass of an element or compound contains 1 mole of substance which is equal to the Avogadro number.

The number of moles = Given mass/Molar mass = m/M

The number of particles(N) = (m/M)รN_{0}

Where m =given mass, M = Molar mass,ย N_{0}ย = Avagadro number

Example- Determine the number of moles in 88 gm ofย ย CO_{2}.

Answer- The number of moles(n) =m/M, where m is given mass and M is the Molar mass of the substance.

Molecular mass of CO_{2}ย =12ร1 + 16 ร 2 = 44 amu

Molar mass (M) of CO_{2}ย = 44 gm

n = m/M =88/44 = 2

Therefore the number of moles in 88 gm are 2 mol.

Example- How many numbers of molecules of water available in 180 gm of water.

Answer. The molecular mass of H_{2}O = 2ร 1 + 16 ร1 = 18 u

Molar mass (M) of H_{2}Oย =ย 18 gm

The given maa(m) = 180 gm

N_{0}ย =6.022ร10^{23ย }

The number of particles,N = (m/M)N_{0}ย

N = (180/18) ร6.022ร10^{23ย }

N = 6.022ร10^{24ย }

ย Therefore the number of molecules of water in 180 gm of water isย 6.022ร10^{24ย }

Example. How many oxygen atoms are in 1.32 kg of carbon dioxide.

Answer. The molecular formula of carbon dioxide is CO_{2}ย

The molecular mass of CO_{2}ย = 12 ร 1 + 16ร 2= 44 u

The molar mass of carbon dioxide (M) = 44 gm

The given mass of carbon dioxide = 1.32 kg = 1320 gm

N =(1320/44)ร6.022ร10^{23ย }

N= 18.066ร10^{23ย }

The number of molecules of carbon dioxide in 1.32 kg carbon dioxide are 18.066ร10^{23ย }

In one molecule of carbon dioxide contain= 2 atoms of oxygenย

Number of oxygen atoms in 1.32 kg of carbon dioxide =2ร 18.066ร10^{23ย ย ย }

36.132ร10^{23ย ย }โ 3.6 ร10^{23ย ย }

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