Animal Tissues : Class 9 Science CBSE - Future Study Point

Animal Tissues : Class 9 Science CBSE

Animal Tissues: Class 9 Science CBSE

Tissues are a group of identical cells that have the same function, as for example when we breathe we feel the movement of the chest, for this, we have specialized cells called muscle cells. The contraction and relaxation of these cells result in movement. During breathing, we inhale oxygen, it is absorbed in the lungs and then transported to all the body cells through the blood, blood carries various substances with it from one place to another in the body,for example, blood carries oxygen and food to all the cells.It also collects wastes from all parts of the body and carries them to the liver and kidney for disposal. Blood and muscles are both examples of tissues in our body, other examples of animal tissue are epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue, and nervous tissue.

types of muscles

You will study here:

  • Epithelial tissue
  • The function of epithelial tissue
  • Squamous epithelial tissue
  • Simple squamous epithelium tissue
  • Stratified squamous epithelium tissue
  • Cuboidal epithelial tissue
  • Columnar epithelial tissue
  • Connected tissues
  • Muscular tissue
  • Nervous tissue
  • Structure of neuron
  • The function of neurons

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Class 9 Science CBSE Notes

Structure and Function of Cell : Cell Biology

Three laws of motion

Archimedes Principle: Complete detail

Average Speed and Average velocity

Three equation of Motions

Recoil velocity of the gun

Mole concept

The second  law of motion

The universal  law of gravitational force

Thrust and Pressure : Difference

Evoporation,Vapourization and Latent heat

Epithelial Tissue

What are Epithelial tissues?: The covering or protective tissues in the animal body are epithelial tissues. It also forms a barrier to keeping different body systems separate. Epithelial tissue cells are tightly packed and form a continuous sheet, the cells have no internal spaces between them.

 It covers the entire body, anything entering or leaving the body must cross at least one layer of epithelium, as a result, the permeability of the cells of various epithelia plays an important role in regulating the exchange of materials between the body and the external environment also between different parts of the body.

epithelial tissues

The function of Epithelial tissue:

Protection: Epithelial tissues help us to defend against mechanical injury, chemical exposure, excessive fluid loss, and infections.

Absorption: The lining of epithelial tissue in the digestive tracts absorbs water and nutrients. Epithelial tissues regulate exchange the of material between different parts of the body.

Sensation: Epithelial tissue contains sensory receptors that help to transmit signals from external stimuli to the brain.

Secretion: Various glands made up of epithelial cells secret hormones, enzymes, saliva, mucus, sweat, etc.

Structure of Epithelial tissue: Different epithelia show differing structures that correlate with their unique functions. For example, in cells lining blood vessels or lining alveoli, where transportation of substances occurs through a selectively permeable surface, there is a simple flat kind of epithelium.

Types of Epithelial Tissues: There are three types of epithelial tissues.

(a)Squamous Epithelial  (b) Cuboidal Epithelial tissue (c) Columnar Epithelial tissue

(a) Squamous Epithelial: Squamous Epithelial  are of two types

(i)Simple Squamous Epithelial (ii) Stratified squamous epithelium

(i)Simple Squamous Epithelial: Simple squamous epithelial cells are extremely thin and flat and form a delicate lining, it is made of one cell layer for faster absorption, it is found inside the body, like the digestive tract, alveoli of the lungs, heart, the osophagus, lining of the mouths.

(ii)Stratified squamous epithelium: Skin epithelial cells are arranged in many layers to prevent wear and tear, since these are arranged in a pattern of layers, the epithelium is called stratified squamous epithelium. Stratified squamous epithelium is found on the upper surface of the tongue, the hard palate of the mouth, the oesophagus of the mouth and anus, vagina, cervix, cornea, oropharynx, and urethra.

stratified,columner and cuboidal epithelial tissues

(b) Cuboidal Epithelial tissue: Cuboidal epithelial forms the lining of kidney tubules and ducts of salivary glands, where it provides mechanical support . Sometimes a portion of the epithelial tissues folds inward, and a multicellular gland is formed, this is known as glandular epithelial.

(c) Columnar Epithelial tissue: Columnar Epithelial tissue is made of tall cells present in the walls of the intestine, these tissues are present in the regions where secretion and absorption occur. In respiration tracks, columnar epithelial also has Celia, which are hair-like projections on the surface of epithelial cells. These cilia can move, and their movement pushes the mucus forward to clear it. These types of epithelium are known as ciliated columnar epithelial tissue.

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Connective Tissues

Blood: The cells of connected tissues are loosely spaced and embedded in an intercellular matrix. The matrix may be jelly-like fluid, dense or rigid. Blood has a fluid matrix called plasma, in which RBCs, WBCs and platelets are suspended. The plasma contains proteins, salts, and hormones. Blood transports gases, digested food, hormones, and waste materials to different parts of the body.

Bone: Bone is another example of connective tissue, it is a strong and nonflexible tissue. Bone cells are embedded in a hard matrix that is composed of calcium and phosphorus compounds.

Ligaments: Two bones are connected by a specific tissue known as a ligament, this tissue is very elastic and has considerable strength. Ligaments contain very little matrix and connect bones with bones.

connective tissues

Tendons: Tendons are another tissue that connects muscles to bones. Tendons are fibrous tissue with great strength but limited flexibility.

Cartilage: Cartilage has widely spaced cells. The cartilage is composed of proteins, and sugars. Cartilage smoothens bone surfaces at joints and is also present in the nose, ear, trachea, and larynx. The cartilage is flexible.

Areolar: Aerolar connective tissues is found between the skin and muscles, around blood vessels and nerves and in the bone marrow. It fills the space inside the organs, supports internal organs, and helps in the repair of tissues.

Adipose: Adipose tissue is found below the skin and between internal organs. The cells of these tissues are filled with fat globules. Storage of fats and lets it act as an insulator.


Muscular Tissue

Muscular tissue consists of elongated cells, also called muscle fibers. This tissue is responsible for movement in our body. Muscles contain special proteins called contractile proteins, which contract and relax to cause movement. Muscles are of two kinds.

types of muscles

(a) Voluntary Muscles: We can move these muscles by our conscious will. These muscles are also called skeletal muscles as they are mostly attached to bones and help in body movement. The cells of this tissue are long, cylindrical, unbranched, and multinucleated(many nuclei). These muscles are present in our limbs.

(b) Involuntary Muscles: We can not move these muscles by our conscious will. The movement of food in the alimentary canal or the contraction and relaxation of blood vessels are involuntary movements. The cells of involuntary muscles are long with pointed ends(spindle-shaped) and uninucleate(having a single nucleus). They are unstriated muscles. Heart muscles are cylindrical, branched, and uninucleate are also an example of involuntary muscles.

Nervous Tissue

All cells possess the ability to respond to stimuli. Cells of nervous tissue are highly specialized for being stimulated and then transmitting the stimulus very rapidly from one place to another within the body. The brain, spinal cord, and nerves are all composed of nervous tissue. The cells of the nervous tissue are called nerve cells or neurons.

Structure of neuron: A neuron consists of a nucleus and cytoplasm from which long thin hair-like parts arise. Usually, each neuron has a single part, called the axon, and many short, branched parts called dendrites. An individual cell may be up to 1 m long. Many nerve fibers bound together by connective tissue make up a nerve.

neuron:cell of nerve tissue

The function of neurons: The signal from any part of the body is transmitted and received from the body part to the brain and the brain to the body part is executed by the neurons. The signal that passes along the nerve fibre is called a nerve impulse. Nerve impulses allow us to move our muscles when we want to. The functional combination of nerve and muscle tissue is fundamental to most animals. This combination enables animals to move rapidly in response to stimuli.

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NCERT Solutions of Science and Maths for Class 9,10,11 and 12

NCERT Solutions for class 9 maths

Chapter 1- Number SystemChapter 9-Areas of parallelogram and triangles
Chapter 2-PolynomialChapter 10-Circles
Chapter 3- Coordinate GeometryChapter 11-Construction
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Chapter 1- Chemical reactions and equationsChapter 9- Heredity and Evolution
Chapter 2- Acid, Base and SaltChapter 10- Light reflection and refraction
Chapter 3- Metals and Non-MetalsChapter 11- Human eye and colorful world
Chapter 4- Carbon and its CompoundsChapter 12- Electricity
Chapter 5-Periodic classification of elementsChapter 13-Magnetic effect of electric current
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Chapter 7-Control and CoordinationChapter 15-Environment
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Chapter 1-SetsChapter 9-Sequences and Series
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Chapter 5- Continuity and DifferentiabilityChapter 13-Probability
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