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Class X science best explained NCERT solutions of the chapter 6-Life Process(Biology part)

Life processes

Class 10 science best explained NCERT solutions of the chapter -Life Process

Life processes

 

Here all NCERT solutions of chapter 6-Life Process of class 10 science are explained in the best way. Chapter 6 of class 10 science NCERT textbook is solved completely as per the CBSE norms.NCERT Solutions of Class 10 science chapter 6 -Life Process are written by an expert teacher of science with the best explanation so that it could be accessed to all readers. All NCERT solutions are of the questions within the pages and of the back exercise of  Chapter 6 of the Class 10 NCERT science textbook. The NCERT solutions of class 10 science NCERT textbook are solutions of the chapter  ‘Life process’ of the Biology part . The students who want to become a doctor the chapter 6 -Life Process is just an initiation in their preparation of  NEET exams. Chapter 6 is based on all kinds of life processes in our body which makes us live.

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Class 10 science  NCERT solutions of the chapter -Life Process

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PDF-Class X science best explained NCERT solutions of the chapter 6                                

Q1.  Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms like humans?

Ans. Unicellular organisms are directly in contact with the environment so their requirement of oxygen is fulfilled by simple diffusion while the body of multi-cellular organisms like humans contains specialized cells and tissues for different kinds of functions. Hence due to the complex structure of the body, multi-cellular organisms can not meet the complete requirement of oxygen by the way of diffusion because their cells are not directly in contact with the surrounding environment.

Q2.What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive?

Ans. All the things which have the movements like walking, breathing or growing are generally used to decide something is alive or not but there are invisible movements like the movement of molecules which results to have different functions like cellular respiration, digestion, etc results in the formation of different molecules in the living body, in short, all these activities are known as life processes. So the presence of the life process is the criteria to decide something is alive.

 Q3.What is the outside raw material used for by an organism?

Ans. The raw material required by an organism depends on its complexity and surrounding environment, the raw materials needed to all organisms are as follows.

Food- The food is obtained from outside of the body for getting energy.

Water-Water is used for the digestion of food.

Oxygen- Oxygen is needed to breakdown food into carbon dioxide and energy.

Carbon dioxide- Carbon dioxide is needed to plants for the process of photosynthesis.

Q4.What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life?

Ans. Life processes such as respiration, transportation, excretion, nutrition, reproduction etc are needed for maintaining life.

Q5.What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition?

 

Ans.

Sr.No.Autotrophic nutritionHeterotrophic nutrition
1Food is synthesized from simple inorganic raw materials such as CO2 and H2O.Food is obtained from autotrophs. This food is then broken down by the enzymes.
2Chlorophyll is requiredChlorophyll is not required
3Food is generally prepared at day timeFood can not be obtained at all time
4All the green plants and some bacteria have this type of nutrition.All the animals and fungi have this type of nutrition.

 

Q6.Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis?

Ans.The following raw materials required for photosynthesis

(i)   CO2 enters the cells of leaves through stomata.

(ii)  Water is absorbed by the roots of plants.

(iii)  Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll and other green parts of the plants.

Q7.What is the role of the acid in our stomach?

Ans. The role of acid HCl secreted by the wall of the stomach to kill the bacteria ingested with the food and maintains the ph. value of stomach so that enzymes could be secreted from the stomach wall for the digestion of food. It also activates the secretion of digestive juices in the pancreas, which further breaks down the food before absorption of the food in the intestine.

Q8.What is the function of digestive enzymes?

Answer- The function of digestive enzymes like amylase, lipase, pepsin, trypsin, lactase, maltase, etc secreted by stomach, pancreas, and small intestine is to breakdown complex food particles into simple food particle. These simple particles can be easily absorbed by the blood and thus transported to all cells of the body.

Q9.How is the small intestine designed to absorb digested food?

Ans. The small intestine has millions of tiny finger-like projections called villi. These villi are designed to increase the surface area for efficient absorption of food. Within these villages many blood vessels are present that absorb digested food and carry it to the bloodstream, then it is transported to every cell of the body.

 

Villy

 

Q10.What advantages over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?

Answer- The amount of oxygen in the air is higher than the oxygen dissolved in the water. The terrestrial animals do not have to breathe faster for obtaining oxygen like aquatic animals because they get oxygen from the atmosphere whereas aquatic animals take oxygen from water so they are needed adaptation for getting required oxygen and thus breathe faster as compared to terrestrial animals.

Q11.What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organisms?

Answer- During the cellular respiration in all organism 6 C atoms molecule of glucose is broken down into 3 C atoms molecule of pyruvate. Thereafter further pyruvate is broken in different ways in case of different organisms.

 

Breakdown of glucose

Anaerobic respiration- It occurs in the absence of oxygen. In yeast during the process of fermentation pyruvate is converted into ethanol, CO2, and energy.

Aerobic respiration- It occurs in the presence of oxygen. In this process, pyruvate converted into CO2, water, and energy. The release of energy is more in the case of Aerobic respiration as compared to Anaerobic respiration.

Lack of oxygen- It occurs due to vigorous activities. Due to lack of oxygen, the molecule of pyruvate converted into lactic acid and energy which results in cramp in muscles.

Q12.How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?

Answer-Carbon dioxide-As a result of respiration in our body cells CO2 is formed which dissolves in the plasma of blood, this deoxygenated blood carried out from all parts of our body through the veins then it is transported to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. In the lungs, CO2 diffused out and expelled out through the nostril.

Oxygen-Oxygen inhaled by us reaches to the lungs where it is diffused into the blood transported by the heart through the pulmonary artery and combines with hemoglobin forming oxyhemoglobin and then carried to the heart through the pulmonary veins. This oxygenated blood is pumped out by the heart to all parts of the body through the arteries and thus oxygen reaches every cell.

Q13.How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximize the area for the exchange of gases?

Answer- When we inhale air the diaphragm which separates the abdomen from the lungs dilated and as a result, the lungs also dilated as air comes into the lungs. Then O2 diffuses into the blood through alveoli of the lungs which is made up of many capillaries. During the exhale the diaphragm contracted and space between the lungs and diaphragm becomes less which makes the lungs contracted and CO2  diffuses into the lungs through alveoli of the lungs and expelled through our nostril.

Q14.What are the components of the transport system in human beings? What are the functions of these components?

Answer-Heart- The role of the heart is to receive deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body and send it to the lungs for oxygenation thereafter pumps this pure blood to all parts of the body.

Blood – Blood is called a connective tissue because each cell of the body gets nutrients, oxygen, water, etc from the blood. The blood transports waste products released by each cell of the body.

Blood vessels- The blood vessels are of three kinds.

(i) Veins- The role of veins is to carry deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body to the heart.

(ii) Artery- The role of the artery is to transport oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.

(iii)Capillaries- The role of the capillary is to serve oxygenated blood from arteries to tissues of our body and feed deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to veins.

Q15.Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?

Answer- The mammals and birds live almost every part of the earth. They are required more energy for maintaining their body temperature because these kinds of organisms exist in hotter and cooler both places. The birds and animals have separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood for getting an efficient supply of oxygen. So, efficient supply of oxygen releases more energy that is required by their body to maintain body temperature.

Q16.What are the components of the transport system in highly organized plants?

Answer- There are two kinds of conducting tissues in highly organized plants.

(i) Xylem- The role of xylem is to conduct water and minerals absorbed by the roots from the soil to the leaves.

(ii)  Phloem- The role of phloem is to conduct food prepared by the leaves to all parts of the plant.

Q17.How are water and minerals transported in plants?

Answer- The root cells take mineral in the form of ions from the soil, it makes the difference in concentration between roots and soil, thus making a steady movement of water by the way of osmotic pressure. All xylem cells of roots, stem, and leaves are connected, the water transports from one cell to another through osmosis and ultimately reaches to leaves. Transpiration(loss of water from leaves) from the leaves increases this suction pressure, it forces the water into the xylem cell of the roots from the soil and thus maintains the flow of water and minerals from roots to leaves.

Q18.How is food transported in plants?

Ans. The food is transported through phloem tissues. All phloem cells of leaves, stem, and roots are connected.  The food prepared by the leaves have more concentration compared to other parts obviously so it transported to other parts by the process of osmosis, the energy for this process is imparted by the ATP released during the photosynthesis.

Q19.Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.

Answer- The nephron is the basic filtering unit of kidneys (cell of the kidney). It is responsible for removing waste products, stray ions and excess water. The main components of the nephron are glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule and long renal tubule.

Anatomy of nephron class 10 cbse

 

  • The blood enters the kidney through the renal artery which branches into many capillaries associated with glomerulus.
  • Blood advances into Bowman’s capsule and here water and solutes transfers to nephron.
  • In the proximal tubule, some substances such as amino acids, glucose and salts are selectively reabsorbed and unwanted molecules are added in the urine.
  • The filtrate then moves down into the loop of Henle where more water is absorbed.
  • From here, the filtrate moves upwards into the distal tube and finally to the collecting duct. Collecting duct collects urine from many nephrons.
  • The urine formed in each kidney enters a long tube called the ureter. From ureter, it gets transported to the urinary bladder and then into the urethra.

Q20.What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?

Ans. The excess water in the leaves excreted by the way of transpiration. The excess CO2 and O2 are excreted by the way of respiration and photosynthesis through the stomata of leaves respectively. The unwanted products like non-starch polysaccharides and certain hydrophobic substances which are referred to as gum generally stored in old xylem or in leaves.Certain waste products stored in the vacuole of cells.

Q21.How is the amount of urine produced regulated?

Answer-The amount of urine produced depends on excess water and waste material dissolved in it. The habitat of organism regulates urine production in the body. The hormone such as Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secreted by the hypothalamus a part of the brain which is stored and released by pituitary glands is also acted on the kidney for controlling the amount of water excreted in the urine.

Q22.The kidneys in  human beings are a part of the system for

 (a)  Nutrition

(b)  Respiration

(c)  Excretion

(d)  Transportation

Answer-In human beings kidneys are a part of the system for excretion.

Q23.The xylem in plants are responsible for

(a)  Transport of water

(b)  Transport of food

(c)  Transport of amino acids

(d)  Transport of oxygen

Answer- The xylems in plants are responsible for the transport of water.

Q24.The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires

(a)  Carbon dioxide and water

(b)  Chlorophyll

(c)  Sunlight

(d)  All of the above

Answer-(d) The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll, and sunlight.

Q25.The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in

(a) cytoplasm

(b)mitochondria

(c)chloroplast

(d)nucleus

Answer- The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water, and energy takes place in mitochondria.

Q26.How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place?

Answer- The fat in the food entered the small intestine in the form of a large globule (spherical pills). The bile acid secreted by the liver converts this large globule into a small globule or emulsify the fat (transformation of fat into small droplets). After the emulsification of fat, the lipase secreted by the pancreas further breaks down the fat into fatty acids and glycerol which is then absorbed by the intestine. This process of fat digestion occurs in the small intestine.

Q27.What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?

Answer-The digestion of food is initiated from the mouth. The saliva is secreted from a salivary gland located at the bottom of the tongue. The role of saliva moistens the food and makes food bolus so that the food could be swallowed easily. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase which changes carbohydrate into simple sugar like maltose and dextrin which is further broken down in the small intestine.

Q28.What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its byproducts?

Answer-The autotrophic nutrition takes place through the process of photosynthesis. The required condition for photosynthesis is CO2, water, chlorophyll pigments, and sunlight. Carbohydrates and oxygen are the byproducts of autotrophic nutrition.

Q29.What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration.

Aerobic respirationAnaerobic respiration
It takes place in the presence of oxygenIt takes place in the absence of oxygen
It involves the exchange of gases between the organism and the environmentExchange of gases between an organism and outside environment is absent
It occurs in cytoplasm and mitochondriaIt occurs only in the cytoplasm
It always releases CO2 and H2OThe products formed depends on organisms
It yields 36 ATP’sIt yields 2 ATP’s

 

Ans. The anaerobic respiration occurs in yeast, some of the bacteria, worms in intestine like askaris and tapeworm etc.Q30. Q30.How are the alveoli designed to maximize the exchange of gases?

Answer-Alveoli has a thickness of almost one cell, has a balloon-like structure and moist surface and surrounded by many blood capillaries, these millions of alveoli extended on the surface of lungs increase the surface area of lungs and provides more exposure for the exchange of gases. During inhale and exhale the ribs lifted up and diaphragm flattened air is sucked into the lungs and CO2, O2 exchanged through the millions of alveoli by the way of diffusion from blood to alveoli and alveoli to the blood.

Q31.What would be the consequences of a deficiency of hemoglobin in our bodies?

Answer- The oxygen is transported by hemoglobin from the heart to all parts of the body through arteries. The deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood will result in less supply of oxygen in our body cell which may cause exhaustion, dizziness or shortness of breath. Deficiency of hemoglobin may also cause anemia.

Q32.Describe double circulation in human beings. Why is it necessary?

Answer- Double circulation means the heart receives deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body through the veins and transports oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the arteries. It is required to make the circulatory system more efficient and maintain body temperature.

Q33.What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem?

Ans.

XylemPhloem
Xylem tissues help in the transports of water and minerals.Phloem tissues help in the transports of the food
Water is transported upwards from roots to parts of the plants.Food is transported in both upward and downward directions.
Transport in xylem occurs with the help of simple physical forces such as simple transpiration pull.Transport of food in the phloem requires energy in the form of ATP.

 Q34.Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning.

Ans.

AlveoliNephron
Alveoli are tiny balloon-like structure present inside the lungsNephrons are tubular structure present inside the kidney
The walls of alveoli are one cell thick and it contains an extensive network of blood capillaries.Nephrons are made of glomerulus, Bowman’s capsules and long renal tube.
The exchange of gases CO2 and O2 takes place between the blood of capillaries that surrounds alveoli and gases present in the alveoli.The blood enters the kidney through the renal artery. The blood is entered here and the nitrogenous waste in the form of urine is collected by collecting duct.
Alveoli are the sites of gaseous exchange.Nephrons are the basic filtration units.

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