Shapes of s,p and d Orbitals Class 11 Chemistry CBSE - Future Study Point

Shapes of s,p and d Orbitals Class 11 Chemistry CBSE

shapes of s,p and d orbitals

Shapes of s,p,d and f orbitals class 11 Chemistry CBSE

An orbital is the region in which probability of finding an electron of given energy is maximum about 90% probability at any point around the nucleus is calculated using the Schrodinger wave equation.

P(finding electron) =ψ²

Where ψ² is the probability density of the electron

ψ² =0,represents the node,the point where probability of finding electron is zero and the plane passing through the node is known as nodal plane.

shapes of s,p and d orbitals

Quantum Numbers and Orbitals Class 11 Chemistry CBSE

Atomic radius: Periodicity in Properties of the elements

Shapes of s Orbitals:

(i) Spherical in shape

(ii)    gives electron probability density at any point.

(iii)The maximum probability density of 1s electron is found near the nucleus decreases as the distance from the nucleus increases.In case of 2s electron the probability density of electron is again maximum near the nucleus and then decreases to zero and increases again and then decreases as the distance from the nucleus increases.

(iv)The intermediate region where the probability density is zero is called a nodal plane or simply node.

(v)No. of nodes (i.e spherical nodes)=n-l-1, where n is principal quantum number and l is the azimuthal quantum number.

(vi)In general any ns orbital has(n-l-1) nodes.

(vii)Electron density is equal in all directions.

s orbital

Number of nodes in 1s orbital is n-l-1 = 1 -0-1 =0

Number of nodes in 2s orbital is n-l-1 = 2 -0-1 =1

Number of nodes in 3s orbital is n-l-1 = 3 -0-1 =2

nodes in s orbital

The shape of p orbital:

(i)The probability of finding the electron is maximum in two lobes on the opposite sides of the nucleus that give rise the shape of dumb bell shape for the p orbital.

(ii)A plane passing through the nucleus in which the probability of finding electrons is known as nodal plane.

(iii)p orbitals have three different orientations along x,y and z axis , these are designated as Px,py and pz

(iv)p orbitals are directional in nature.

shapes of p orbitals

As we know it is the magnetic quantum number which gives information of orbitals

For l =1,the value of m is -1,0 and 1,these magnetic quantum number corresponds to three orientation of p orbitals  Px,py and pz

If the probability of finding electrons is along x axis then orbital shaped along x axis is known as Px

If the probability of finding electrons is along y axis then orbital shaped along y axis is known as Py

If the probability of finding electrons is along z axis then orbital shaped along z axis is known as Pz

(v)Three p orbitals belonging to a particular energy level(shell) have equal energy are called degenerate orbitals.

Shapes of d orbitals:

(i)Shape of d orbitals is double dumbled except d

(ii)The shape of dorbital is a doughnut or peanut shell.

(iii)For m=-2,-1,0,1,2,there are corresponding d orbitals of the name dxy,dyz, dzx ,dx²y²,and  d

dxy represents the probability of finding the elctrons on x-y plane

dyz represents the probability of finding the elctrons on y-z plane

dxz represents the probability of finding the elctrons on x-z plane

dx²y² represents the probability of finding the elctrons along x and y axis

dz² represents the probability of finding the elctrons along  z axis and a ring along x axis is formed which shows the probabilty of finding electrons along x -axis

shapes of d orbitals

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