**Shapes of s,p,d and f orbitals class 11 Chemistry CBSE**

An orbital is the region in which probability of finding an electron of given energy is maximum about 90% probability at any point around the nucleus is calculated using the Schrodinger wave equation.

P(finding electron) =ψ²

Where ψ² is the probability density of the electron

ψ² =0,represents the node,the point where probability of finding electron is zero and the plane passing through the node is known as nodal plane.

**Quantum Numbers and Orbitals Class 11 Chemistry CBSE**

**Atomic radius: Periodicity in Properties of the elements**

**Shapes of s Orbitals:**

(i) Spherical in shape

(ii) gives electron probability density at any point.

(iii)The maximum probability density of 1s electron is found near the nucleus decreases as the distance from the nucleus increases.In case of 2s electron the probability density of electron is again maximum near the nucleus and then decreases to zero and increases again and then decreases as the distance from the nucleus increases.

(iv)The intermediate region where the probability density is zero is called a nodal plane or simply node.

(v)No. of nodes (i.e spherical nodes)=n-l-1, where n is principal quantum number and l is the azimuthal quantum number.

(vi)In general any ns orbital has(n-l-1) nodes.

(vii)Electron density is equal in all directions.

Number of nodes in 1s orbital is n-l-1 = 1 -0-1 =0

Number of nodes in 2s orbital is n-l-1 = 2 -0-1 =1

Number of nodes in 3s orbital is n-l-1 = 3 -0-1 =2

**The shape of p orbital:**

(i)The probability of finding the electron is maximum in two lobes on the opposite sides of the nucleus that give rise the shape of dumb bell shape for the p orbital.

(ii)A plane passing through the nucleus in which the probability of finding electrons is known as nodal plane.

(iii)p orbitals have three different orientations along x,y and z axis , these are designated as P_{x},p_{y} and p_{z}

(iv)p orbitals are directional in nature.

As we know it is the magnetic quantum number which gives information of orbitals

For l =1,the value of m is -1,0 and 1,these magnetic quantum number corresponds to three orientation of p orbitals P_{x},p_{y} and p_{z}

If the probability of finding electrons is along x axis then orbital shaped along x axis is known as P_{x}

If the probability of finding electrons is along y axis then orbital shaped along y axis is known as P_{y}

If the probability of finding electrons is along z axis then orbital shaped along z axis is known as P_{z}

(v)Three p orbitals belonging to a particular energy level(shell) have equal energy are called degenerate orbitals.

**Shapes of d orbitals:**

(i)Shape of d orbitals is double dumbled except d_{z²}

(ii)The shape of d_{z² }orbital is a doughnut or peanut shell.

(iii)For m=-2,-1,0,1,2,there are corresponding d orbitals of the name d_{xy},d_{yz}, d_{zx },d_{x²y²},and d_{z²}

d_{xy }represents the probability of finding the elctrons on x-y plane

d_{yz }represents the probability of finding the elctrons on y-z plane

d_{xz }represents the probability of finding the elctrons on x-z plane

d_{x²y² }represents the probability of finding the elctrons along x and y axis

d_{z² }represents the probability of finding the elctrons along z axis and a ring along x axis is formed which shows the probabilty of finding electrons along x -axis

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