Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electronic Configuration of s,p,d and f block Elements
The distribution of electrons into the orbitals of the atom is known as electronic configuration.
The period indicates the value of the principal quantum number n for the outermost or valence shell.
The successive period in the periodic table is associated with the filling of the next higher energy level(n=1,n=2..etc)
Electronic Configuration of s Block elements:
(i)General electronic configuration of s block alkaline elements is ns¹
(ii)General electronic configuration of s block alkaline earth elements is ns²
(iii)All elements are reactive metals
(iv)Because of high reactivity they are never found in the pure state in nature.
(v)As we go down the group metalic character increases.
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Electronic Configuration of Alkali Metals
Elements  Atomic Number  Electronic Configuration(ns¹) 
Li  3  1s^{2}2s^{1} 
Na  11  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{1} 
K  19  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}4p^{6}5s^{1} 
Rb  37  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}5s^{1} 
Cs  55  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{6}6s^{1} 
Fr  87  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}4d^{10}4f^{14}5s^{2}5p^{6}5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{6}7s^{1}

Electronic Configuration of Alkali Metals
Elements  Atomic Number  Electronic Configuration(ns¹) 
Be  4  1s^{2}2s^{2} 
Mg  12  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2} 
Ca  20  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}4p^{6}5s^{2} 
Sr  38  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}5s^{2} 
Ba  56  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{6}6s^{2} 
Ra  88  1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}4d^{10}4f^{14}5s^{2}5p^{6}5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{6}7s^{2}

Electronic Configuration of p Block elements:
(i)The general electronic configuration is ns^{2}np^{16}(electrons in p from 1 to 6)
(ii)The metallic character decreases as we go left to right along the period in the periodic table and nonmetallic character increases.
Group 13  Group 14  Group 15  Group 16  Group 17  Group 18 
ns^{2}np^{1}  ns^{2}np^{2}  ns^{2}np^{3}  ns^{2}np^{4}  ns^{2}np^{5}  ns^{2}np^{6} 
As an example p block elements in second period contains B(5),C(6),N(7),O(8),F(9) and Ne(10).Their electronic configurations are B1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{1},C1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{2},N1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{3},O1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{4},F1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{5},Ne1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}
Note: s and p block elements are called representative elements or main group elements.
Electronic Configuration of d Block elements:
(i)d block elements are known as transitional elements.
(ii)d block elements are from group 3 to group 12.
(iii)These are characterized by the filling up of inner d orbitals.
(iv)Their general outer electronic configuration is (n1)d^{110} ns^{02}( d orbital can have 1 to 10 and s orbital can have 0 to 2 electrons).
(v)They are all metals.
(vi)d block elements form coloured ions,exhibit variable valancey(oxygen states),paramagnetism and used as catalysts.
(vi)Zn,Cd and Hg which have the electronic configuration (n1)d^{10}s^{2 }don’t show most of the properties of transitional elements.
(v)Transitional elements form a bridge between the chemically active metals of s block elements and less active elements of group 13 and group 14 and thus take their familiar name “transitional elements”.
Electronic Configuration of f Block elements:
(i)f block elements are called inner transitional elements because these elements are taken out from the d block elements which are transitional elements.
(ii)Since these elements were discovered later so in period 6 after lanthanum(57) a series of the elements from atomic number 58 to atomic number 71, a total of 14 elements were taken out, these elements are known as lanthanoids and in period 7 after actinium(89) from atomic number 90 to atomic number 103 total 14 elements were seperated, these elements are called actinoids.
(iii)The general electronic configuration of f block elements is (n2)d^{114}(n1)d^{010}ns^{2}
(iv)They are all metals.
(v)Actenoid elements are radioactive.
(vi)The elements after uranium (92) are called transuranium elements.
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