Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electronic Configuration of s,p ,d and f block Elements - Future Study Point

Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electronic Configuration of s,p ,d and f block Elements

electronic configuration of s,p,d and f block elements

Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electronic Configuration of s,p,d and f block Elements

The distribution of electrons into the orbitals of the atom is known as electronic configuration.

The period indicates the value of the principal quantum number n for the outermost or valence shell.

The successive period in the periodic table is associated with the filling of the next higher energy level(n=1,n=2..etc)

electronic configuration of s,p,d and f block elements

Electronic Configuration of s Block elements:

(i)General electronic configuration of s block alkaline elements is ns¹

(ii)General electronic configuration of s block alkaline earth elements is ns²

(iii)All elements are reactive metals

(iv)Because of high reactivity they are never found in the pure state in nature.

(v)As we go down the group metalic character increases.

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Electronic Configuration of Alkali Metals

ElementsAtomic NumberElectronic Configuration(ns¹)
Li31s22s1
Na111s22s22p63s1
K191s22s22p63s24p65s1
Rb371s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p65s1
Cs551s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p66s1
Fr871s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d104f145s25p65d106s26p67s1

 

Electronic Configuration of Alkali Metals

ElementsAtomic NumberElectronic Configuration(ns¹)
Be41s22s2
Mg121s22s22p63s2
Ca201s22s22p63s24p65s2
Sr381s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p65s2
Ba561s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p66s2
Ra881s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d104f145s25p65d106s26p67s2

 

Electronic Configuration of p Block elements:

(i)The general electronic configuration is ns2np1-6(electrons in p from 1 to 6)

(ii)The metallic character decreases as we go left to right along the period in the periodic table and non-metallic character increases.

Group 13Group 14Group 15Group 16Group 17Group 18
ns2np1ns2np2ns2np3ns2np4ns2np5ns2np6

As an example  p block elements in second period contains B(5),C(6),N(7),O(8),F(9) and Ne(10).Their electronic configurations are B-1s22s22p1,C-1s22s22p2,N-1s22s22p3,O-1s22s22p4,F-1s22s22p5,Ne-1s22s22p6

Note: s and p block elements are called representative elements or main group elements.

Electronic Configuration of d Block elements:

(i)d block elements are known as transitional elements.

(ii)d block elements are from group 3 to group 12.

(iii)These are characterized by the filling up of inner d orbitals.

(iv)Their general outer electronic configuration is (n-1)d1-10 ns0-2( d orbital can have 1 to 10 and s orbital can have 0 to 2 electrons).

(v)They are all metals.

(vi)d block elements form coloured ions,exhibit variable valancey(oxygen states),paramagnetism and used as catalysts.

(vi)Zn,Cd and Hg which have the electronic configuration (n-1)d10s2 don’t show most of the properties of transitional elements.

(v)Transitional elements form a bridge between the chemically active metals of s block elements and less active elements of group 13 and group 14 and thus take their familiar name “transitional elements”.

Electronic Configuration of f Block elements:

(i)f block elements are called inner transitional elements because these elements are taken out from the d block elements which are transitional elements.

(ii)Since these elements were discovered later so in period 6 after lanthanum(57) a series of the elements from atomic number 58 to atomic number 71, a total of 14 elements were taken out, these elements are known as lanthanoids and in period 7 after actinium(89) from atomic number 90 to atomic number 103 total 14 elements were seperated, these elements are called actinoids.

(iii)The general electronic configuration of f block elements is (n-2)d1-14(n-1)d0-10ns2

(iv)They are all metals.

(v)Actenoid elements are radioactive.

(vi)The elements after uranium (92) are called transuranium elements.

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