## Food chain and food web in an ecosystem

You will study here

(i)Meaning of Food chain

(ii) Trophic Level

(iii)Definition of Food Chain

(iv) Food web

(v) Extract(Biological Magnification)

**NCERT Solutions of Science for Class 10**

**Food chain and food web in an ecosystem**

**Meaning of food chain**

A food chain in an ecosystem defines that one organism depends on other organisms for its survival. In a food chain energy is transferred from one organism to another organism. A food chain starts with producer organisms (Plants). All food chains are processed in the presence of bacteria on the earth.

**Trophic level** – Each step or level of the food chain forms a trophic level. The autotrophs or the producers are at the first trophic level. Autotrophs fix up the solar energy and make it available for heterotrophs or consumers. The herbivores or the primary consumers come at the second, small carnivores or secondary consumers at the third, and larger carnivores or the tertiary consumer forms the fourth trophic level.

**Mechanism of Food Chain –** Plant (producer) gets energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy. This energy supports all the activities in the world. From plants, the energy is transferred to heterotrophs and decomposers, as we know when one form of energy is changed to another, there is a loss of energy due to the surroundings that can’t be regained.

**The transfer of energy**

(i) The green plants in a terrestrial ecosystem capture at least 1% of the energy of sunlight that falls on their leaves and convert it into food.

(ii) When green plants are eaten by herbivores, a great deal of energy is lost as heat to the environment. Some amount of the energy is utilized in digestion. And in doing work and rest goes towards the growth and reproduction. An average of 10% of the total energy driven from the food taken is turned into its own body and made available for the next level of consumer. Since little energy is available for the next level of consumers, the loss of energy at each step is so great that very little usable energy remains after four trophic levels. There are greater numbers of individuals at the lower levels of an ecosystem.

**Food web**: Each organism is generally eaten by two or more organisms. Other kinds of organisms which in turn are eaten by two or more. Other kinds of organisms which in turn are eaten by several other organisms. There is the relationship of one food chain to several other food chains.So instead of a straight line food chain, the relationship can be shown as a series of branching lines called a food web.

**Biological magnification**

The human lies on the top level of any food chain. Several pesticides and chemicals are utilized in to protect the crop from diseases and pests. These chemicals are either washed down into the soil or into the water bodies. From the soil, these are absorbed by the plants, from the water bodied these are taken by fishes and aquatic plants. These chemicals accumulated as the trophic level rises up and ultimately maximum consumption is taken place by humans,it is known as biological magnification.

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Chapter 1- Number System | Chapter 9-Areas of parallelogram and triangles |

Chapter 2-Polynomial | Chapter 10-Circles |

Chapter 3- Coordinate Geometry | Chapter 11-Construction |

Chapter 4- Linear equations in two variables | Chapter 12-Heron’s Formula |

Chapter 5- Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry | Chapter 13-Surface Areas and Volumes |

Chapter 6-Lines and Angles | Chapter 14-Statistics |

Chapter 7-Triangles | Chapter 15-Probability |

Chapter 8- Quadrilateral |

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Chapter 1-Sets | Chapter 9-Sequences and Series |

Chapter 2- Relations and functions | Chapter 10- Straight Lines |

Chapter 3- Trigonometry | Chapter 11-Conic Sections |

Chapter 4-Principle of mathematical induction | Chapter 12-Introduction to three Dimensional Geometry |

Chapter 5-Complex numbers | Chapter 13- Limits and Derivatives |

Chapter 6- Linear Inequalities | Chapter 14-Mathematical Reasoning |

Chapter 7- Permutations and Combinations | Chapter 15- Statistics |

Chapter 8- Binomial Theorem | Chapter 16- Probability |

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Chapter 1-Relations and Functions | Chapter 9-Differential Equations |

Chapter 2-Inverse Trigonometric Functions | Chapter 10-Vector Algebra |

Chapter 3-Matrices | Chapter 11 – Three Dimensional Geometry |

Chapter 4-Determinants | Chapter 12-Linear Programming |

Chapter 5- Continuity and Differentiability | Chapter 13-Probability |

Chapter 6- Application of Derivation | CBSE Class 12- Question paper of maths 2021 with solutions |

Chapter 7- Integrals | |

Chapter 8-Application of Integrals |

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