Lewis Dot Structure Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding
Lewis Dot Structure Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding: Class 11 Chemistry Notes are very important for understanding chemistry basics. Lewis Dot Structure follows the octet rule, every atom tends to have an octet in its outermost shell, hydrogen is exceptional because its outermost shell contains 1 electron therefore it will have a tendency to obtain 2 electrons, showing the outermost electrons(valence electrons) in the representation of electronic dot structure is the Lewis dot structure, this rule can be neglected for central atom because central atom can have 8 electrons or more than 8 electrons.
Lewis Dot Structure Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding
The molecules or polyatomic ions contain one of the central atoms which is attached to two or more corner atoms in their electronic dot structures.
Rules for the Selecting central atom:
(i)The central atom is selected on the basis of the sequence of priority as an example the atom which is least in no/has the least electronegativity/has the largest size/has the highest atomic no.
Hydrogen and fluorine can’t be the central atom
(ii)Octet of the corner atom must be complete.
(iii) Central atom can have 8 or more electrons
(iv)Central atom tries to remain in maximum co-valency(the no. of covelents bonds formed by it),oxygen can form 1,2 ,sulphur 2,4,6, Nitrogen 3,4, Phosphorus 3,5, Carbon 4, Silicon 4, Chlorine 1,3,5,7 covalent bonds.
(v) If a positive charge is there then it will represent at central atom (Ex.H_{3}O^{+},NH_{4}^{+})
(vi) If the negative charge is there then it will be represented at corner atoms (NO_{3}^{–}_{,}SO_{4}^{-2},CO_{3}^{-2})
Calculation:
Q_{total el}= Valence electrons of all atoms +(any negative charge on compound if it exists) – (any positive charge on compound if it exists)
Bond Pair Electrons = 2×No. of Bonds
Lone Pair Electrons = Q_{total el}– Bond Pair Electrons
Note: Either loan pair will build up or they will be utilized in making double or triple bond
Lewis Dot Structure Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding
Examples:
Lewis Dot Structure of Hydrogen: H_{2}
No. of valence electrons in a single hydrogen atom = 1
Total no. of valence electrons in the molecule H_{2} = 2
Hence
Q_{total el}= 2
H• —• H
Bond Pair Electrons =2
Lone Pair Electrons = = Q_{total el}– Bond Pair Electrons = 2 – 2 =0
Lewis Dot Structure of Hydrogen: O_{2}
No. of valence electrons in a single oxygen atom = 1
Total no. of valence electrons in the molecule O_{2} = 12
Initially placing single electron for contributing in a single covalent bond,one oxygen atom gives 2 electrons in building a single bond between oxygen atom.
Q_{total el} = 6 + 6 = 12 valence electrons
Bond Pair Electrons =2
Lone Pair Electrons = = Q_{total el}– Bond Pair Electrons = 12 – 2 =10
Still, the octet of both corner atoms is not completed, so for compensating it another oxygen atom will contribute its two electrons ,it is the process of bond formation between two oxygen atoms.
The charge in a molecule resonants within it, so let’s find the individual charge of each atom of the molecule which is known as a formal charge.
Formal Charge of an atom = Valence electrons of the atom – Loan pair of the atom- Bond pair electrons/2
As an example the charge of each oxygen atom in its molecule is
Formal Charge of each oxygen atom = 6 – 4 – 4/2 = 6-4-2 =0
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