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# Refraction of the light through the Prism

Prism is a transparent three-dimensional solid shape in which the cross-section area of at least two opposite faces is the same. Let’s consider a triangular prism,a triangular prism has two bases of the same opposite triangular planes and three rectangular surfaces of the same cross-sectional area. Let’s take the top view of the prism, when a light ray falls on the surface of the prism, it bends towards the normal since light ray bends towards the normal when it passes from a rare medium to a denser medium, then light ray passes from glass to air, it bends away from the normal, what we observe here, there is the angle of deviation between an incoming ray from air to glass and the emerging ray glass to air. The incoming ray is split up into seven colors because the velocity is proportional to the wavelength, since light is made of 7 different wavelengths(i.e colors), the velocities of these colors differ from each other as soon as the light ray enters the prism. When light ray further passes from glass to air, these colors deviated more and we observe a pattern of 7 colors of the light in the decreasing order of their wavelengths ‘VIBGYOR’.

Let the light ray  $\fn_cm \overrightarrow{AB}$ incident on one of the surfaces of the prism PQ obliquely,it bents to the normal MN, the incoming light ray forms an angle of incident ∠iand refracted ray $\fn_cm \overrightarrow{BC}$ forms an angle of refraction ∠r1,

this refracted ray incident on an opposite surface and forms an ∠i2The refracted ray further travels from glass to air, in this situation the light ray $\fn_cm \overrightarrow{CE}$ bends away from the normal M’N’and forms an emergent angle. The angle of emergent( ∠e) is differed by the angle of the incident, this difference between the angle of incident and the angle of emergent is known as the angle of deviation∠D .

Dispersion of the light: Light rays pass from air to glass and split into seven colors because of the refraction of the light and the light is composed of seven colors, when the light ray enters the prism the velocity of all the colors changes, and it happens because the velocity of a wave is the product of frequency and the wavelength.7 colors of the light have different wavelengths due to which all colors move in the glass prism as per their velocity, therefore as the light ray enters the prism, these colors deviate individually then further while moving from glass to air these colors deviates more giving rise the phenomenon of dispersion ’VIBGYOR‘, the highest velocity is of red color which deviates least and lowest velocity is of violet color which deviates largest.

The experiment for showing the light is composed of 7 colors: If we place an inverted glass prism in front of an erected glass prism and allow the dispersed light to pass through the inverted glass prism. All the colors of the light deviate to a single point that results in the merge of all the colors into white color and thus emerging ray is white, it shows that light is made of seven colors.

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