**Image formation by Convex and Concave Mirrors**

The concave and convex Mirrors are carved out from a transparent sphere whose one surface is bulged outward or curved inward, one surface of the mirror is the reflecting surface and the other surface is made opaque by polishing it.

**Image formation by Convex and Concave Lenses**

**Image formation by Convex and Concave Mirrors**

**Difference between Convex and Concave lenses**

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**Image formation by Concave Mirror:**

**When an object is placed at infinity:** The incoming parallel rays strike the mirror then the surface of the mirror reflected these rays to a point on the principal axis which is known as the focal point of the concave mirror resulting in the formation of a pointed image at the focal point of the concave mirror.

**When an object is placed at the point beyond the centre of curvature: **When an object is placed beyond the centre of the curvature, then a parallel beam of light strikes the mirror and passes through the focal point after the mirror reflected them. A beam of light also passes through the centre of curvature and is reflected back in the same way consequently a real image is formed between the centre of the curvature and the focal point which is of a size smaller than the object.

**When an object is placed at the centre of curvature: **When an object is placed at the centre of the curvature, then a parallel beam of light strikes the mirror and passes through the focal point after the mirror reflected them. A beam of light also passes through the next cardinal point, the focal point of the concave mirror, and is reflected back by the mirror parallel to the principal axis. consequently, a real and inverted image is formed at the centre of the curvature.

**When an object is placed at the centre of curvature: **When an object is placed between the centre of the curvature and the focal point then a parallel beam of light strikes the mirror and passes through the focal point after the mirror reflected them. A beam of light also strikes the mirror in such a way that it is reflected back in the same way and passes through the centre of the curvature. consequently, a real and inverted image is formed beyond the centre of the curvature which is of a size greater than the object.

**When an object is placed at the focal point: **When an object is placed at the focal point then a parallel beam of light strikes the mirror and passes through the focal point after the mirror reflected them. A beam of light also strikes the mirror in such a way that it is reflected back in the same way and passes through the centre of the curvature. consequently, a real and much larger image is formed at the infinity.

**When an object is placed between the focal point and pole: **When an object is placed between the focal point and pole then a parallel beam of light strikes the mirror and passes and is reflected back through the centre of the curvature after the mirror reflected them. A beam of light also strikes the mirror and passes through the pole which is reflected as per the rules of reflection, consequently a virtual and erect image is formed which is of a size larger than the object.

**Image formation by Convex Mirror:**

**When an object is placed at infinity:** The incoming parallel rays strike the mirror then the convex mirror reflects them linearly with the focal point of the mirror resulting in the formation of a pointed virtual image at the focal point of the convex mirror.

**When an object is placed at a finite distance:** The incoming parallel rays strike the mirror then the convex mirror reflects them colinearly with the focal point of the mirror, since the object is near to the mirror therefore some of the incoming rays pass through the optical centre which results in the formation of the image between optical centre and focal point of the convex mirror. The size of the image is of smaller than the size of the object.→

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