**What is the difference between virtual and real images?**

The image formed by the mirror or lens whose shadow is formed on the screen if we place a screen in front of a mirror or lens is known as a real image and the image formed by the mirror or lens whose shadow is not formed on the screen is known as the virtual image if we place a screen in front of a mirror or lens.

Characteristics of the image formed by the plane mirror.

- The image formed by a plane mirror is virtual and erected.
- The size of the image is the same as the size of the object.
- The distance of the image from the mirror is the same as the distance of the object from the mirror.
- The image is laterally inverted because if we raise our left it would appear in the plane mirror that we have raised our right hand.

**Image formation by Convex and Concave Lenses**

**Image formation by Convex and Concave Mirrors**

**Difference between Convex and Concave lenses**

**Formation of virtual image:**The real image is formed in the side of the mirror or lens where two light rays meet after reflection or refraction and if they don’t meet then both light rays are drawn to advance them in the backward direction, and both light rays are advanced until they meet each other that is the point where a virtual image is formed.

**The virtual image formed by a convex mirror:** The incoming parallel ray incident on the surface of the convex mirror is reflected by it in such a way as it would appear to be originated from a point on the principal axis which is known as the focal point of the convex mirror, so in ray diagram, it is shown by dotted line by advancing it in opposite direction.

Another ray incident on the surface of a convex mirror and reflected in such a way as it would appear to be originated from a point on the principal axis which is known as the centre of the curvature of the convex mirror, so in the ray diagram, it is shown by a dotted line by advancing it in opposite direction, both of these rays meet between pole and the focal point. The image formed by a convex mirror is virtual and erect since it is the point opposite to the surface where the reflection of the light takes place.

**The real image formed by a concave mirror**: The incoming parallel ray incident on the surface of the concave mirror and the reflected ray passes through the focal point of the concave mirror. Another ray passes through the centre of the curvature if the object is located at the point beyond the centre of the curvature, both of these rays meet at the point between centre of the curvature and the pole.

**The virtual image formed by a concave lens:** When an object is placed at a finite distance a parallel ray is refracted in such a way as it would appear to be originated from a point on the principal axis which is one of the focal points of the concave lens. so in the ray diagram, it is shown by a dotted line by advancing it in opposition to the direction of refraction. Another light ray passes through the optical centre of the concave lens, both of these rays meet between the focal point and the optical centre of the concave lens. The image formed by the concave lens is virtual and erect since it is the point opposite to the direction of refraction.

**The real image formed by a convex lens:** The incoming parallel ray incident on the surface of the convex lens and the refracted ray passes through the focal point of the convex lens. Another ray passes through the centre of the curvature if the object is located at the point beyond the centre of the curvature, both of these rays meet at the point between centre of the curvature and the focal point of the convex lens. The image formed by the convex lens is real and inverted since it is formed in the direction of refraction.

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