Chemical properties of Acid and Bases
Acid and bases are widely used in our daily life. Here, a short note is written about the chemical properties of acids and bases for grade 10 .In the chemical industry acid and bases are used to manufacture numerous of products. Here a short note is written about the chemical properties of acid and base, here you will study the reaction of an acid with, metals, metal carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, the reaction of acid and base with each other, reaction of metallic oxide and non-metallic oxide with acids, the common properties of acid and bases, the solution of acid and base with water.
The reaction of Acid and Base with Metals:
In the reaction of Acid and Metal, the Metal displaces the hydrogen atom from the molecule of Acid releasing hydrogen gas,the metal combine with the remaining part of the acid and forms its corresponding salt.
The general equation of Acid and Metal is written as follows
Acid + Metal → Salt of Metal + Hydrogen gas
Most of the metals follow this reaction with acids.
H2SO4 + Zn → ZnSO4 + H2
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
The reaction of NaOH with zn granules is as follows
2NaOH + Zn → Na2ZnO2 + H2
Zn + NaOH + H2O → Na2Zn(OH)4 + H2
The base reacts with Al or Zn only
Reaction of Acids with Metal carbonate and hydrogen carbonate:
The general equation of metal carbonate and metal hydrogen carbonate is as follows
Metal carbonate/hydrogen carbonate + Acid → Salt + Carbon dioxide + Water
Adding HCl to Na2CO3 or NaHCO3 give rise the following reactions
Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2
NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2
Further,passing the CO2 gas evolved through lime water[Ca(OH)2]
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O
On passing excess Carbon di oxide,the following reaction takes place.
CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 → Ca(HCO3)(Soluble in water)
The reaction of Acid and Base with each other:
The Acid and Base when mixes together their effects are multiplied to each other, thus the following reaction takes place.
NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O
The reaction between an Acid and Base to give salt and water is known as a neutralization reaction, the neutralization reaction is of the following form.
Base + Acid → Salt + Water
The reaction of Metallic Oxide with Acids:
The general equation of metallic oxide with acid is as follows
Metal oxide + Acid → Salt + Water
When diluting hydrochloride acid is added to copper oxide, the colour of the solution changes to green-blue due to the formation of copper chloride.
2HCl + CuO → CuCl2 + H2O
The Acid doesn’t react with non-metallic oxide, because generally non-metallic oxides are acidic in nature.
Amphoteric oxides are those oxides that react with the base as well as with acids, as for example, aluminum oxides and zinc oxides both are amphoteric oxides as they react with both acids and bases.
Al2O3 + 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2O
Al2O3 + 2NaOH (aq) → 2NaAlO2 + H2O
ZnO + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2O
ZnO + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + H2O
NaAlO2 is sodium illuminate and Na2ZnO2 is Sodium zincate in above reactions
The reaction of non-metallic oxide with Base:
The reaction of non-metallic oxide is the same as the reaction between Acid and Bases since non-metallic oxides are acidic in nature,so both non-metallic oxide and base both neutralize each other forming the corresponding salt and water.
When CO2 is passed to NaOH(aq), the following reaction takes place
2NaOH + CO2 → Na2CO3 + H2O
The common properties of Acids and Bases:
All acids have similar properties because all the acids release hydrogen ion, the concentration of hydrogen decides the acidity of hydrogen ions. Properties of all the bases are similar because all the bases releases hydroxide ions and the concentration of hydrogen ions decides the basicity of the base.
- Bases and Acids change the colour of litmus paper, acid changes the blue litmus paper to red and Base change the red litmus paper to blue.
- The strong base and the strong acid both corrode or rust the metals.
- Acid damages the skin severely, a strong base can also do the same.
- In everyday life we use the acid available in citrous fruits, tamarind, and grapes, vinegar. we also use the base available in toothpaste, soaps, antacids, and baking soda.
- The acids and base when mixes up with water give rise hydrogen and oxygen ions that cause the conduction of electricity through them.
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