The structure and anatomy of the Heart - Future Study Point

The structure and anatomy of the Heart

Heart structure

The structure and anatomy of the heart

Heart anatomy


The heart is a muscular organ that is as big as our fist, the heart is located just behind and slightly left of the breast bone. The heart works like a pump, It pumps blood through the network of arteries and veins.arteries.veins and heart all together are called the transportation system of our body, because nutrients, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxides are transported through the blood. Since Co2 and O2 are transported through the heart so it is designed to have four chambers.

The heart gets deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body and pumps out oxygenated blood to all parts of our body.

The heart has different chambers to prevent the oxygen-rich blood from mixing with the blood containing carbon dioxide.

You can study how does the heart function through a step by step way.

1. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs comes to the thin-walled upper chamber of the heart on the left, the left atrium.

2. The left atrium dilates when it is collecting the blood from the lungs. The left atrium then contracts while  next chamber, the left ventricle expands so that the blood is transferred into it.

3. The left ventricle then contracts and thus blood is pumped out to all body parts.

4. Deoxygenated blood comes from the body to the upper chamber on the right, the right atrium.

5. Right ventricle receives the deoxygenated blood through a valve from the right atrium and then sends it to the lungs through the pulmonary artery for oxygenation of blood.

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Structure Of Heart

The heart is made up of three layers of cardiac tissue

  • Epicardium
  • Myocardium
  • Endocardium

These layers are surrounded by the pericardium a thin outer lining protecting the heart. The two small upper chambers are atriums and the two larger lower chambers are the ventricles, there left and right sides of the heart are separated by a wall of muscle known as the septum.

The mechanism of the heart

The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the veins, vena cava from the upper and lower parts of the body, and then pumps it to the right ventricle.

The right ventricle receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs through the pulmonary artery

The left atrium receives the oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins. The right ventricle receives  blood from the left atrium.,The right ventricle which is the strongest chamber of the heart creates our blood pressure due to vigorous contractions.

The right ventricle sends oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body through the aorta. the biggest artery of the circulatory system.

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Q-How Does The Exchange Of Gas Takes Place In Fishes?

Ans. Fishes have only two chambers to their hearts and the blood is pumped to the gills, is oxygenated there, and passes directly to the rest of the body. Thus, blood goes only once through the heart in the fish during one cycle of passage through the body.

Q-Why does not oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood mix together in blood vessels or in the heart?

Ans. The oxygenated blood is received by the left atrium through the pulmonary vein then it is sent to the left ventricle through a valve that maintains the unidirectional flow of blood then it is pumped out through the biggest blood vessel aorta . Deoxygenated blood is received by the right atrium and then it is sent to the right ventricle through a valve between them making the one-directional flow of the blood. The left and right part of the heart is separated by a muscular layer known as the septum that prevents the mixing of blood. The base of the pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and aorta is connected to the chambers of the heart through the valves that prevent backflow of the current.

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