**Modes of reproduction used by single organisms-Asexual reproductions**

When Birth of new generation occures due to the involvement of single parent,then such a reproduction is known as asexual mode of reproduction where new individual is delivered by a solitary parent. The new individual delivered are hereditarily and physically is indistinguishable from one another, i.e., they are identical to their parent.

Asexual reproduction is seen in both multicellular and unicellular life forms. The asexual reproduction doesn’t include any sort of gamete combination and there won’t be any adjustment in the quantity of chromosomes by the same token. Reproduced organism acquires similar genes as the parent, aside from certain situations where there is an opportunity of rare mutation to occur.

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**Fission**

For unicellular organisms, cell division, or fission., leads to the creation of new individuals. Many different patterns of fission have been observed. Many bacteria and protozoa(amoeba,euglena, paramecium etc) simply split into two equal halves during cell division, it is known as binary fission. Splitted cells are known as daughter cells, these daughter cells are identical to each other and to their parent cell. In organisms such as Amoeba, etc the splitting of the two cells during division can take place in any plane but the division of euglena takes place longitudinally.

Some of the single-celled organisms, such as the malaria parasite, plasmodium , divide into numerous of daughter cells simultaneously, it is known as **multiple fission**,each of splitted daughter cells are identical to each other and to their parent cell. Multiple fission also occurs in other single-cell organisms like sporozoans and algae

**Fragmentation: **

In this mode of asexual reproduction parental body divided into two or more fragments,later each fragment develops into a new individual.In multi-cellular organisms with relatively simple body organization, simple reproductive methods can still work. Spyro Gyra, for example simply breaks up into smaller pieces upon maturation. These pieces or fragments grow into new individuals. The fragmentation of the organism is not possible in other multicellular organisms because they are not simply a random collection of cells. In other multicellular organism has specialized cells organized as tissues, and tissues are organized into organs,so cell by cell division in them is not possible and thus, need to use more complex ways of reproduction.

**Regeneration: **

Some of the organism have speialised cells,which can differentiate and grow into new organism,such of the organisms designed in such a way that they are capable to grow new individuals from their body parts, as an example the animal with simple body design Hydra and Planaria can be cut into any number of pieces, and each piece grow into a complete organism. This is known as regeneration. Regeneration in the organism is carried out by specialized cells. These cells proliferated and make a large number of cells. From this mass of cells, different cells undergo changes to become various cell types and tissues. These changes take place in an organized sequence referred to as development.

**Budding: **

Some of the organism uses regenerative cells and for this buds developed in their body. Each buds develops into a new organism,it is known as budding. In hydra, a bud develops as an outgrowth due to repeated cell division at one specific site.These buds develops into tiny individual and when fully mature.detach from the parental body and become new individuals.

**Vegetative Propagation:**

Plants can be reproduced under appropriate conditions through their vegetative parts such as roots, stems, leaves, and buds. This property of vegetative propagation is used in methods such as layering or grafting to grow many plants like sugarcane, roses, and grapes for increasing the rate of productivity in agriculture since plants used in vegetative propagation can bear flowers and fruits faster than those produced from seeds. Such methods are useful in the propagation of plants such as banana, orange, rose, and jasmine that has lost the capacity to produce seeds.

**Spore Formation: **

In many multi-cellular organisms, specific reproductive parts are created known as sporangia,it is a tiny blob on a stick structure developed in some of plants, fungi, bacteria, and algae. The sporangia contain reproductive cells known as spores. Spores are covered by thick walls that protect them until they come into contact with another moist surface, the interaction of moist and sporangia leads the sporangia blasted and spores spread in the air, and again when these spores come in contact to a moist surface these can begin to grow into a new individual.

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