Anatomy of the Human brain-Class 10 CBSE
The human brain is just like a computer,as the components of the computer are responsible for the different type of process or task on the same way there are different parts of the brain which controls the different type of functions inhumane body. The human brain functions 24 hours even in the state of sleep and syncope or unconsciousness,it is that’s why sometimes you visualize a variety of dreams and keep remembering them. The functioning of all organs of our body is controlled by the human brain, all the systems of our body are under the control of our brain,it is the reason that the human brain has different units for fulfilling different type of functions in our system. Here we shall discuss them one by one.
The brain is shielded by the skull,the gap between the brain and the skull is filled by the cerebrospinal fluid.
Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) is a fluid that circulates within hollow space in the skull and the spinal cord.CSF is produced by a special cell, the ependymal of the brain every day.
.CSF protects the brain from mechanical shocks and dampening minor jolts.CSF provides buoyancy for the brain, the brain is suspended inside the skull,it is that’s why it has neglected weight.
The main parts of the brain are following
1-Forebrain 2-Midbrain 3-Hindbrain
Fourbrain is the largest part of the brain, it is subdivided into following parts.
(i)Cerebrum (ii) Hypothalamus (iii) Thalamus
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, it is composed of two cerebral hemispheres that are joined together by white coloured dense band fibre called corpus callosum.The surface of the cerebrum is further divided into four lobes.
1.Frontal lobe: It executes the function of speech, planning, reasoning, problem-solving activities, and movements of body orgon.
2.Parietal lobe:It integrates sensory inputs informing single perception, so its main function is of sensation and perception.
- Frontal lobe: It is associated with parts of speech, planning, reasoning, problem-solving, and movements.
- Parietal lobe: Help in movements, the perception of stimuli and orientation,as an example temperature, touch and taste.
- Occipital lobe: It is related to visual processing as an example colour.
- Temporal lobe: This region is related to perception and recognition of memory, emotions ,auditory stimuli, and interpretes the information from ear in the form of sound of words.
The thalamus is a small part of cerebrum located above the brain stem. Its role is to relay sensory information from the sense organs, eyes, nose,skin,ear and eyes. It is also responsible for transmitting motor information for movement and coordination.It is also responsible to store new memories and past memories.
Hypothalamus is a small and important part of the cerebrum,it is located bellow thalamus and above the pituitary gland.It is considered the principal part of the cerebrum. The hypothalamus though is the size of a pea but it performs highly specialized functions. It performs the following functions.
(i) It maintains homeostasis (maintaining our body temperature normal)
(ii) Responds to variety of signals like temperature,hunger, control in eating and smell
(iii)Level of hormones circulated in our body
(iii) Controles stress hormone
(iv) It produces a different type of hormones like oxytocin, thyroid glands, growth hormone, prolactin, dopamine
Midbrain is composed of techtom and tagmentum
Tagtom.The tectum is a small portion of the brain, specifically the dorsal part of the midbrain. It serves as a relay centre for the sensory information from the ears to the cerebrum. It also controls the reflex movements of the head, eye and neck muscles. It provides a passage for the different neurons moving in and out of the cerebrum.
Tagmentum: Tegmentum is a region within the brainstem. It is a complex structure with various components, which is mainly involved in body movements, sleep, arousal, attention, and different necessary reflexes. It forms the platform for the midbrain and connects with the thalamus, cerebral cortex, and the spinal cord.
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It contains (i) Cerebellum (ii) Medula Oblongata (iii) Pons
The cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain, located at the top of brain stem in the posterior of the medulla and pons. The cerebellum and cerebrum are separated by the cerebellar tentorium and transverse fissure. The cortex is the outer surface of the cerebellum and its parallel ridges are called the folia. Apart from this, the cerebellum has the cerebellar pendulous, cerebellar nuclei, anterior and posterior lobes. The cerebellum posterior lobes. The cerebellum consists of two hemispheres, the outer grey cortex and the inner white medulla. It is mainly responsible for coordinating and maintaining body balance during walking, running, riding, swimming, and precision control of the voluntary movements. The main functions of the cerebellum include:
1.It senses equilibrium
3.Coordinates eye movement
4.It enables precision control of the voluntary body movements.
5.Predicts the future position of the body during a particular movement.
6.Both anterior and posterior lobes are concerned with the skeletal movements.
7.The cerebellum is also essential for making fine adjustments to motor actions.
8.Coordinates and maintains body balance and posture during walking, running, riding, swimming.
The medulla oblongata is located bellow the cerebellum at the brainstem. It’s primary role is to control heart beats, breathing and digestion, it connects the spinal cord, pons to cerebrum and also helps in maintaining posture.
The pons is the primary structure of the brain stem present between the midbrain and medulla oblongata. It serves as a relay signals between the lower cerebellum, spinal cord, the midbrain, cerebrum and other higher parts of the brain. The main functions of the pons include:
(i)Controlling sleep cycles.
(ii)Regulating the magnitude and frequency of the respiration.
(iii)Transfers information between the cerebellum and motor cortex.
(iv)Pons is also involved in sensations, such as the sense of taste, hearing, and balance.
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