Human digestive system structure and function - Future Study Point

Human digestive system structure and function

Humane digestive system

Human digestive system structure and functions

The human digestive system is an alimentary canal of 8 -10 meters. The human digestive system is a hollow tube from the mouth to anus called an alimentary canal. The role of the human digestive system is digestion, absorption, and excretion through 5 main digestive organs. The human digestive system is helped by so many glands to carry on the process of digestion. Each organ of the human digestive system has its specific work in the digestion of food.

Humane digestive system

 

Human digestive system structure and functions

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Human digestive system structure and functions

Human digestive system structure and functions

Humans have the 11 systems of organs, among them, the digestive system is the most significant system on the grounds that the nourishment we take is processed through it and changed over into glucose which when responds with oxygen during the respiration reaction releases vitality to all systems of the body accomplishing their specific work.

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Human digestive system structure and functions

The human digestive system is an empty track of the length 30 feet divided into 8 parts. These parts are specialized to perform different functions. Future study point is introducing here what happens to the food once it enters our body. After you go through the whole posts of the human digestive system you could become able to answer of each question related to the digestion of food. Understanding the anatomy of the digestive system will also enable you to take care of your digestion network. In the post of the human digestive system, you will study the role of each part of the alimentary canal one by one so that you will be through with the topic.

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Mouth

Mouth ,digestive system

 

The food is torn, cut, and ground by the teeth, the role of teeth is to prepare food so that it could be swallowed easily because the lining on the walls of the alimentary canal is quite soft, in the mouth, the food is wetted to make its passage smooth. When we eat something our mouth waters, actually this is saliva secreted by the salivary glands. Salivary glands are located throughout the mouth. The role of salivary glands is to produce saliva which mixes with food. The food is complex in nature, it is needed to be broken down into smaller molecules so that it could be absorbed by the alimentary canal, saliva contains salivary amylase an enzyme that converts complex molecules of carbohydrate to sugar, it is the very first stage of digestion in the mouth. You can experience it by chewing a piece of bread for a long time it will start to taste the sweetness as the sugars are released.

Oesophagus

Osophagus

 

From the mouth, the food is taken to the stomach through the food pipe which is known as the oesophagus. The food moves through the alimentary canal in a regulated manner called the peristaltic movement. Peristaltic moments is contraction and dilation of circular muscles of the alimentary canal, in this moment muscle next to the swallowed food is dilated and the muscles attached to the backword of food is contracted, the peristaltic moments occur throughout the gut, in this way, food swallowed by us is not reversed back and maintains one-way traffic of food and liquids swallowed by us. The peristaltic moments occur immediately when we swallow the food.

The stomach

Stomach

 

The stomach is a large organ that expands when food enters it, the muscular walls of the stomach help in mixing the food thoroughly with digestive juices. The stomach wall contains numerous gastric glands that secrete hydrochloric acids, pepsin, and mucus. The hydrochloric acid creates an acidic medium which facilitates the action of the enzyme pepsin. The pepsin digest the protein available in the food, protein is digested partially in the stomach. The mucus secreted by the walls of the stomach protects the inner lining of the stomach walls from the action of hydrochloric acid.

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Small intestine

The small intestine is the longest part of the gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal), The small intestine is about 4.75m to 6m (15 to 20 feet) long and has an average diameter of 2.5 cm (1 inch). The length of the small intestine differs in various animals depending on the food they eat. Herbivores eating grass need a longer small intestine to allow the cellulose to be digested. Meat is easier to digest, hence carnivores like tiger have a  shorter small intestine. The small intestine of human is made of duodenum, jejunum, and ilium.

 

Intenstines

The duodenum connects the stomach to the small intestine, the exit of food from the stomach is regulated by a sphincter muscle which releases it in small amounts into the small intestine, most digestive enzymes enter the small intestine in the duodenum. The food rest in the stomach for about 30 to 60 minutes, the partially digested food is called chyme slowly enters the duodenum, in the duodenum, the chyme mixes with bile secreted by the liver and juices secreted by the pancreas. The fat enters the small intestine in the form of large globules, the bile secreted by the liver breakdown it into small globules. In the duodenum trypsin released by pancreas digest proteins, pancreatic amylase digest carbohydrate, and lipase digest fats.

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The pancreas also secrets two hormones insulin which regulates blood sugar and glucagon which works with insulin to control blood sugar levels. The food is further digested and absorbed in the jejunum and ilium, the jejunum is the middle part of the small intestine. Most digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the jejunum. The ilium is the last and longest part of the small intestine. The ilium absorbs nutrients from the digested food and empties the waste into the large intestine. The walls of small intestine secrete different types of enzymes that convert carbohydrates into glucose, protein into amino acids and fats into fatty acids. The role of each enzyme is given bellow.

Maltase, sucrase, and lactase – digestion of carbohydrate

Intestinal lipase – digestion of fat (convert fat into fatty acids)

Intestinal peptidase- Digestion of protein

Large intestine

large intenstine

 

The large intestine is divided into three parts caecum, colon, and rectum. The small intestine is connected to caecum through the ileocecal valve which maintains one-way traffic of the intestinal contents. The function of the caecum is to absorb remaining water and salts available in the undigested food. The large intestine contains 500 species of different bacteria, these bacteria synthesize vitamin K which is also absorbed here. The undigested food further moves down and the rests of water is reabsorbed and thus undigested food is prepared here to be emptied into the rectum. When the body is ready for a bowl moment the waste dumped into the rectum.

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